Infusing Military Culture in Multicultural Counseling Frameworks: A Phenomenological Study

Katherine M. Atkins*, Toni R. Tollerud*, Tilottama Roy-White*, Lauren E. Brdecka*, Deanna Chrones*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


This descriptive phenomenological study focused on counselor educators' (CESs) experiences infusing military culture into counseling curriculum. Specifically, this study sought to learn what counseling programs can do to best prepare counselors-in-training to work with military families. The researchers used the McCracken (1988) method to interview ten participants who had terminal degrees in counselor education or a highly related field, experience providing services to military-connected clients, and were aware of military cultural facets (e.g., implicit and explicit expectations, rules, and ways of being). The findings support the need to redefine multiculturalism and intentional infusion of military culture in counseling curriculum to increase counselors' awareness of military culture to provide more effective services.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1950-1967
Number of pages18
JournalQualitative Report
Issue number7
StatePublished - 2023


  • Phenomenology
  • competency
  • counselor
  • counselor education
  • culture
  • military
  • multiculturalism

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Cultural Studies
  • Education


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