Background: Many studies on prostate cancer (PCa) germline variants have been published in the last 15 years. This review critically assesses their clinical validity and explores their utility in prediction of PCa detection rates from prostate biopsy. Methods: An integrative review was performed to (1) critically synthesize findings on PCa germline studies from published papers since 2016, including risk-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), polygenic risk score methods such as genetic risk score (GRS), and rare pathogenic mutations (RPMs); (2) exemplify the findings in a large population-based cohort from the UK Biobank (UKB); (3) identify gaps for implementing inherited risk assessment in clinic based on experience from a healthcare system; (4) evaluate available GRS data on their clinical utility in predicting PCa detection rates from prostate biopsies; and (5) describe a prospective germline-based biopsy trial to address existing gaps. Results: SNP-based GRS and RPMs in four genes (HOXB13, BRCA2, ATM, and CHEK2) were significantly and consistently associated with PCa risk in large well-designed studies. In the UKB, positive family history, RPMs in the four implicated genes, and a high GRS (>1.5) identified 8.12%, 1.61%, and 17.38% of men to be at elevated PCa risk, respectively, with hazard ratios of 1.84, 2.74, and 2.39, respectively. Additionally, the performance of GRS for predicting PCa detection rate on prostate biopsy was consistently supported in several retrospective analyses of transrectal ultrasound (TRUS)-biopsy cohorts. Prospective studies evaluating the performance of all three inherited measures in predicting PCa detection rate from contemporary multiparametric MRI (mpMRI)-based biopsy are lacking. A multicenter germline-based biopsy trial to address these gaps is warranted. Conclusions: The complementary performance of three inherited risk measures in PCa risk stratification is consistently supported. Their clinical utility in predicting PCa detection rate, if confirmed in prospective clinical trials, may improve current decision-making for prostate biopsy.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research