Initiation, continuation, or withdrawal of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers and outcomes in patients hospitalized with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction

Lauren G. Gilstrap, Gregg C. Fonarow, Akshay S. Desai, Li Liang, Roland Matsouaka, Adam D. DeVore, Eric E. Smith, Paul Heidenreich, Adrian F. Hernandez, Clyde W. Yancy, Deepak L. Bhatt*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background-Guidelines recommend continuation or initiation of guideline-directed medical therapy, including angiotensinconverting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin II receptor blockers (ACEi/ARB), in hospitalized patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction. Methods and Results-Using the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure Registry, we linked clinical data from 16 052 heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (ejection fraction ≤40%) patients with Medicare claims data. We divided ACEi/ARB-eligible patients into 4 categories based on admission and discharge ACEi/ARB use: continued (reference group), started, discontinued, or not started on therapy. A multivariable Cox proportional hazard model was used to determine the association between ACEi/ARB category and outcomes. Most, 90.5%, were discharged on ACEi/ARB (59.6% continued and 30.9% newly started). Of those discharged without ACEi/ARB, 1.9% were discontinued, and 7.5% were eligible but not started. Thirty-day mortality was 3.5% for patients continued and 4.1% for patients started on ACEi/ARB. In contrast, 30-day mortality was 8.8% for patients discontinued (adjusted hazard ratio [HRadj] 1.92; 95% CI 1.32-2.81; P < 0.001) and 7.5% for patients not started (HRadj 1.50; 95% CI 1.12-2.00; P=0.006). The 30-day readmission rate was lowest among patients continued or started on therapy. One-year mortality was 28.2% for patients continued and 29.7% for patients started on ACEi/ARB compared to 41.6% for patients discontinued (HRadj 1.35; 95% CI 1.13-1.61; P < 0.001) and 41.7% (HRadj 1.28; 95% CI 1.14-1.43; P < 0.001) for patients not started on therapy. Conclusions-Compared with continuation, withdrawal of ACEi/ARB during heart failure hospitalization is associated with higher rates of postdischarge mortality and readmission, even after adjustment for severity of illness.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere004675
JournalJournal of the American Heart Association
Volume6
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - 2017

Keywords

  • Angiotensin II receptor blockers
  • Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors
  • Heart failure
  • Outcomes research
  • Quality of care

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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