Ink casting and 3D-extrusion printing of the thermoelectric half-Heusler alloy Nb1-xCoSb

Muath M.Al Malki*, G. Jeffrey Snyder, David C. Dunand

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Additive manufacturing of lattices with ∼600 μm diameter struts is achieved via extrusion printing of an ink containing prealloyed powder of the half-Heusler alloy Nb1-xCoSb, followed by debinding and vacuum sintering to a relative density of ∼70–80%. The ink can also be poured and cast into square blocks, which, after debinding and sintering, achieve a similar relative density. Sintering in a Sb-rich atmosphere reduces Sb sublimation and decomposition of the half-Heusler phase. This is reflected in electrical conductivity values, for ink-cast specimens, similar to those of a sample created by vacuum hot-pressing of dry powders (1080 S/cm at 298 K). However, a lower Seebeck coefficient for the ink-cast specimens (92 vs. 150 µV/K for a hot-pressed sample) leads to a reduced figure of merit (zTmax = 0.10±0.015 vs. 0.26±0.04 at 873 K for a hot-pressed sample), where secondary phases, NbSb2 and CoSb3 were observed; these might be minimized, or even eliminated, via further optimization of the sintering conditions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number100113
JournalAdditive Manufacturing Letters
StatePublished - Feb 2023


  • 3D printing
  • NbCoSb
  • Thermoelectric
  • half-Heusler

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Materials Science (miscellaneous)
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Engineering (miscellaneous)


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