The central nervous system (CNS) is an immunologically specialized organ. The blood-brain barrier regulates the passage of molecules and cells into the CNS. Robust immune responses occur in the CNS even though there is normally an absence of MHC molecules, lack of normal lymphatic drainage, and reduced immune surveillance. This review discusses the immunological elements of the healthy CNS and the pattern of responses that evolve during innate and adaptive immunity in this organ. We also discuss the contribution of astrocytes, cerebrovascular endothelial cells, microglia, macrophages, and dendritic cells to the integrity and pathology of the CNS during CD4+ T-cell autoimmune responses directed against neuroantigens.
- CD4 Th1 cell
- Cerebrovascular endothelial cell
- Dendritic cell
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy