Innovation in basic science: Stem cells and their role in the treatment of paediatric cardiac failure opportunities and challenges

Sunjay Kaushal*, Jeffrey Phillip Jacobs, Jeffrey G. Gossett, Ann Steele, Peter Steele, Craig R. Davis, Elfriede Pahl, Kalpana Vijayan, Alfred Asante-Korang, Robert J. Boucek, Carl L. Backer, Loren E. Wold

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

16 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Heart failure is a leading cause of death worldwide. Current therapies only delay progression of the cardiac disease or replace the diseased heart with cardiac transplantation. Stem cells represent a recently discovered novel approach to the treatment of cardiac failure that may facilitate the replacement of diseased cardiac tissue and subsequently lead to improved cardiac function and cardiac regeneration. A stem cell is defined as a cell with the properties of being clonogenic, self-renewing, and multipotent. In response to intercellular signalling or environmental stimuli, stem cells differentiate into cells derived from any of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm, a powerful advantage for regenerative therapies. Meanwhile, a cardiac progenitor cell is a multipotent cell that can differentiate into cells of any of the cardiac lineages, including endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes. Stem cells can be classified into three categories: (1) adult stem cells, (2) embryonic stem cells, and (3) induced pluripotential cells. Adult stem cells have been identified in numerous organs and tissues in adults, including bone-marrow, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and, as was recently discovered, the heart. Embryonic stem cells are derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst stage of the developing embryo. Finally through transcriptional reprogramming, somatic cells, such as fibroblasts, can be converted into induced pluripotential cells that resemble embryonic stem cells. Four classes of stem cells that may lead to cardiac regeneration are: (1) Embryonic stem cells, (2) Bone Marrow derived stem cells, (3) Skeletal myoblasts, and (4) Cardiac stem cells and cardiac progenitor cells. Embryonic stem cells are problematic because of several reasons: (1) the formation of teratomas, (2) potential immunologic cellular rejection, (3) low efficiency of their differentiation into cardiomyocytes, typically 1% in culture, and (4) ethical and political issues. As of now, bone marrow derived stem cells have not been proven to differentiate reproducibly and reliably into cardiomyocytes. Skeletal myoblasts have created in vivo myotubes but have not electrically integrated with the myocardium. Cardiac stem cells and cardiac progenitor cells represent one of the most promising types of cellular therapy for children with cardiac failure.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)74-84
Number of pages11
JournalCardiology in the young
Volume19
Issue numberSUPPL.2
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2009

Fingerprint

Stem Cells
Heart Failure
Pediatrics
Embryonic Stem Cells
Cardiac Myocytes
Skeletal Myoblasts
Heart Diseases
Adult Stem Cells
Bone Marrow
Regeneration
Blastocyst Inner Cell Mass
Germ Layers
Endoderm
Ectoderm
Teratoma
Skeletal Muscle Fibers
Mesoderm
Heart Transplantation
Treatment Failure
Ethics

Keywords

  • Bone marrow
  • Embryonic stem cell
  • Heart failure
  • Paediatrics
  • Stem cell

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Kaushal, S., Jacobs, J. P., Gossett, J. G., Steele, A., Steele, P., Davis, C. R., ... Wold, L. E. (2009). Innovation in basic science: Stem cells and their role in the treatment of paediatric cardiac failure opportunities and challenges. Cardiology in the young, 19(SUPPL.2), 74-84. https://doi.org/10.1017/S104795110999165X
Kaushal, Sunjay ; Jacobs, Jeffrey Phillip ; Gossett, Jeffrey G. ; Steele, Ann ; Steele, Peter ; Davis, Craig R. ; Pahl, Elfriede ; Vijayan, Kalpana ; Asante-Korang, Alfred ; Boucek, Robert J. ; Backer, Carl L. ; Wold, Loren E. / Innovation in basic science : Stem cells and their role in the treatment of paediatric cardiac failure opportunities and challenges. In: Cardiology in the young. 2009 ; Vol. 19, No. SUPPL.2. pp. 74-84.
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author = "Sunjay Kaushal and Jacobs, {Jeffrey Phillip} and Gossett, {Jeffrey G.} and Ann Steele and Peter Steele and Davis, {Craig R.} and Elfriede Pahl and Kalpana Vijayan and Alfred Asante-Korang and Boucek, {Robert J.} and Backer, {Carl L.} and Wold, {Loren E.}",
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Kaushal, S, Jacobs, JP, Gossett, JG, Steele, A, Steele, P, Davis, CR, Pahl, E, Vijayan, K, Asante-Korang, A, Boucek, RJ, Backer, CL & Wold, LE 2009, 'Innovation in basic science: Stem cells and their role in the treatment of paediatric cardiac failure opportunities and challenges', Cardiology in the young, vol. 19, no. SUPPL.2, pp. 74-84. https://doi.org/10.1017/S104795110999165X

Innovation in basic science : Stem cells and their role in the treatment of paediatric cardiac failure opportunities and challenges. / Kaushal, Sunjay; Jacobs, Jeffrey Phillip; Gossett, Jeffrey G.; Steele, Ann; Steele, Peter; Davis, Craig R.; Pahl, Elfriede; Vijayan, Kalpana; Asante-Korang, Alfred; Boucek, Robert J.; Backer, Carl L.; Wold, Loren E.

In: Cardiology in the young, Vol. 19, No. SUPPL.2, 01.11.2009, p. 74-84.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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T1 - Innovation in basic science

T2 - Stem cells and their role in the treatment of paediatric cardiac failure opportunities and challenges

AU - Kaushal, Sunjay

AU - Jacobs, Jeffrey Phillip

AU - Gossett, Jeffrey G.

AU - Steele, Ann

AU - Steele, Peter

AU - Davis, Craig R.

AU - Pahl, Elfriede

AU - Vijayan, Kalpana

AU - Asante-Korang, Alfred

AU - Boucek, Robert J.

AU - Backer, Carl L.

AU - Wold, Loren E.

PY - 2009/11/1

Y1 - 2009/11/1

N2 - Heart failure is a leading cause of death worldwide. Current therapies only delay progression of the cardiac disease or replace the diseased heart with cardiac transplantation. Stem cells represent a recently discovered novel approach to the treatment of cardiac failure that may facilitate the replacement of diseased cardiac tissue and subsequently lead to improved cardiac function and cardiac regeneration. A stem cell is defined as a cell with the properties of being clonogenic, self-renewing, and multipotent. In response to intercellular signalling or environmental stimuli, stem cells differentiate into cells derived from any of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm, a powerful advantage for regenerative therapies. Meanwhile, a cardiac progenitor cell is a multipotent cell that can differentiate into cells of any of the cardiac lineages, including endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes. Stem cells can be classified into three categories: (1) adult stem cells, (2) embryonic stem cells, and (3) induced pluripotential cells. Adult stem cells have been identified in numerous organs and tissues in adults, including bone-marrow, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and, as was recently discovered, the heart. Embryonic stem cells are derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst stage of the developing embryo. Finally through transcriptional reprogramming, somatic cells, such as fibroblasts, can be converted into induced pluripotential cells that resemble embryonic stem cells. Four classes of stem cells that may lead to cardiac regeneration are: (1) Embryonic stem cells, (2) Bone Marrow derived stem cells, (3) Skeletal myoblasts, and (4) Cardiac stem cells and cardiac progenitor cells. Embryonic stem cells are problematic because of several reasons: (1) the formation of teratomas, (2) potential immunologic cellular rejection, (3) low efficiency of their differentiation into cardiomyocytes, typically 1% in culture, and (4) ethical and political issues. As of now, bone marrow derived stem cells have not been proven to differentiate reproducibly and reliably into cardiomyocytes. Skeletal myoblasts have created in vivo myotubes but have not electrically integrated with the myocardium. Cardiac stem cells and cardiac progenitor cells represent one of the most promising types of cellular therapy for children with cardiac failure.

AB - Heart failure is a leading cause of death worldwide. Current therapies only delay progression of the cardiac disease or replace the diseased heart with cardiac transplantation. Stem cells represent a recently discovered novel approach to the treatment of cardiac failure that may facilitate the replacement of diseased cardiac tissue and subsequently lead to improved cardiac function and cardiac regeneration. A stem cell is defined as a cell with the properties of being clonogenic, self-renewing, and multipotent. In response to intercellular signalling or environmental stimuli, stem cells differentiate into cells derived from any of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm, and mesoderm, a powerful advantage for regenerative therapies. Meanwhile, a cardiac progenitor cell is a multipotent cell that can differentiate into cells of any of the cardiac lineages, including endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes. Stem cells can be classified into three categories: (1) adult stem cells, (2) embryonic stem cells, and (3) induced pluripotential cells. Adult stem cells have been identified in numerous organs and tissues in adults, including bone-marrow, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and, as was recently discovered, the heart. Embryonic stem cells are derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst stage of the developing embryo. Finally through transcriptional reprogramming, somatic cells, such as fibroblasts, can be converted into induced pluripotential cells that resemble embryonic stem cells. Four classes of stem cells that may lead to cardiac regeneration are: (1) Embryonic stem cells, (2) Bone Marrow derived stem cells, (3) Skeletal myoblasts, and (4) Cardiac stem cells and cardiac progenitor cells. Embryonic stem cells are problematic because of several reasons: (1) the formation of teratomas, (2) potential immunologic cellular rejection, (3) low efficiency of their differentiation into cardiomyocytes, typically 1% in culture, and (4) ethical and political issues. As of now, bone marrow derived stem cells have not been proven to differentiate reproducibly and reliably into cardiomyocytes. Skeletal myoblasts have created in vivo myotubes but have not electrically integrated with the myocardium. Cardiac stem cells and cardiac progenitor cells represent one of the most promising types of cellular therapy for children with cardiac failure.

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KW - Embryonic stem cell

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KW - Paediatrics

KW - Stem cell

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