Objective: Inpatient hypoglycemia (glucose ≤70 mg/dL) is a limitation of intensive control with insulin. Causes of hypoglycemia were evaluated in a randomized controlled trial examining intensive glycemic control (IG, target 140 mg/dL) versus moderate glycemic control (MG, target 180 mg/dL) on post-liver transplant outcomes. Methods: Hypoglycemic episodes were reviewed by a multidisciplinary team to calculate and identify contributing pathophysiologic and operational factors. A subsequent subgroup case control (1:1) analysis (with/without) hypoglycemia was completed to further delineate factors. A total of 164 participants were enrolled, and 155 patients were examined in depth. Results: Overall, insulin-related hypoglycemia was experienced in 24 of 82 patients in IG (episodes: 20 drip, 36 subcutaneous [SQ]) and 4 of 82 in MG (episodes: 2 drip, 2 SQ). Most episodes occurred at night (41 of 60), with high insulin amounts (44 of 60), and during a protocol deviation (51 of 60). Compared to those without hypoglycemia (n = 127 vs. n = 28), hypoglycemic patients had significantly longer hospital stays (13.6 ± 12.6 days vs. 7.4 ± 6.1 days; P =.002), higher peak insulin drip rates (17.4 ± 10.3 U/h vs. 13.1 ± 9.9 U/h; P =.044), and higher peak insulin glargine doses (36.8 ± 21.4 U vs. 26.2 ± 24.3 U; P =.035). In the case-matched analysis (24 cases, 24 controls), those with insulin-related hypoglycemia had higher median peak insulin drip rates (17 U/h vs. 11 U/h; P =.04) and protocol deviations (92% vs. 50%; P =.004). Conclusion: Peak insulin requirements and protocol deviations were correlated with hypoglycemia. Abbreviations: DM = diabetes mellitus ICU = intensive care unit IG = intensive glycemic control MELD = Model for End-stage Liver Disease MG = moderate glycemic control SQ = subcutaneous.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism