Integrated antibody and cellular immunity monitoring are required for assessment of the long term protection that will be essential for effective next generation vaccine development

Eustache Paramithiotis, Christophe Varaklis, Stephane Pillet, Shahin Shafiani, Mary Pat Lancelotta, Steve Steinhubl, Scott Sugden, Matt Clutter, Damien Montamat-Sicotte, Todd Chermak, Stephanie Y. Crawford, Bruce L. Lambert, John Mattison, Robert L. Murphy*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations

Abstract

The COVID pandemic exposed the critical role T cells play in initial immunity, the establishment and maintenance of long term protection, and of durable responsiveness against novel viral variants. A growing body of evidence indicates that adding measures of cellular immunity will fill an important knowledge gap in vaccine clinical trials, likely leading to improvements in the effectiveness of the next generation vaccines against current and emerging variants. In depth cellular immune monitoring in Phase II trials, particularly for high risk populations such as the elderly or immune compromised, should result in better understanding of the dynamics and requirements for establishing effective long term protection. Such analyses can result in cellular immunity correlates that can then be deployed in Phase III studies using appropriate, scalable technologies. Measures of cellular immunity are less established than antibodies as correlates of clinical immunity, and some misconceptions persist about cellular immune monitoring usefulness, cost, complexity, feasibility, and scalability. We outline the currently available cellular immunity assays, review their readiness for use in clinical trials, their logistical requirements, and the type of information each assay generates. The objective is to provide a reliable source of information that could be leveraged to develop a rational approach for comprehensive immune monitoring during vaccine development.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1166059
JournalFrontiers in immunology
Volume14
DOIs
StatePublished - 2023

Keywords

  • COVID
  • COVID-19
  • antibody
  • cellular immunity
  • vaccine development

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

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