Integrated porous cobalt oxide/cobalt anode with micro- and nano-pores for lithium ion battery

Hyeji Park, Kyungbae Kim, Kyeongjae Jeong, Jin Soo Kang, Hoon Hwe Cho, Balamurugan Thirumalraj, Yung Eun Sung, Heung Nam Han, Jae Hun Kim, David C. Dunand, Heeman Choe*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Scopus citations


An integrated porous cobalt-oxide/cobalt (Co3O4/CoO/Co) anode was prepared by facile processes, including directional freeze casting of a Co foam and its partial thermal oxidation to Co3O4/CoO, for use as a high-capacity anode material for lithium-ion batteries (LIBs). The thermal oxidation created a nanostructured oxide layer, 0.4 μm in thickness, on the surface of aligned, interconnected Co lamellae comprising the foam. In this electrode design, the Co foam was used as the current collector, and the nanowall-like Co oxide (CoO and Co3O4) layers acted as the anode that reacted with lithium ions during discharging and charging. The integrated porous Co3O4/CoO/Co anode exhibits highly reversible capacity of 989 mAh g−1 after 50 cycles with an coulombic efficiency of 99.4%, which is superior to that of the conventional Co foil anode (245 mAh g−1). The integrated porous Co3O4/CoO/Co architecture demonstrated in this study has promising potential applications for self-supporting advanced anodes with tailored macro- and microstructures for high capacity LIBs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number146592
JournalApplied Surface Science
StatePublished - Sep 30 2020


  • Cobalt foam
  • Cobalt oxide anode
  • Finite element modeling
  • Freeze casting
  • Lithium ion battery
  • Thermal oxidation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Surfaces and Interfaces


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