Integration of heard and seen speech: A factor in learning disabilities in children

Erin A. Hayes*, Kaisa Tiippana, Trent G. Nicol, Mikko Sams, Nina Kraus

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

53 Scopus citations


Normal-learning children (NL) and children with learning disabilities (LD) reported their perceptions of unisensory (auditory or visual), concordant audiovisual (e.g. visual /apa/ and auditory /apa/) and conflicting (e.g. visual /aka/ and auditory /apa/) speech stimuli in quiet and noise (0 dB and -12 dB signal-to-noise ratio, SNR). In normal populations, watching such conflicting combinations typically changes auditory percepts ('McGurk effect'). NL and LD children identified unisensory auditory and congruent audiovisual stimuli similarly in all conditions. Despite being less accurate identifying unisensory visual stimuli, LD children were more likely than NL children to report hearing only the visual component of incongruent audiovisual stimuli at -12 dB SNR. Furthermore, LD children with brainstem timing deficits demonstrated a distinctive pattern of audiovisual perception. The results suggest that the perception of simultaneous auditory and visual speech differs between NL and LD children, perhaps reflecting variations in neural processing underlying multisensory integration.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)46-50
Number of pages5
JournalNeuroscience Letters
Issue number1
StatePublished - Nov 6 2003


  • Audiovisual integration
  • Auditory brainstem response
  • Auditory perception
  • Dyslexia
  • Learning disabilities
  • McGurk effect
  • Speech perception
  • Visual perception

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Neuroscience


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