Integration of the Renal Angina Index and Urine Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin Improves Severe Acute Kidney Injury Prediction in Critically Ill Children and Young Adults

Stuart L. Goldstein*, Kelli A. Krallman, Cassie Kirby, Jean Philippe Roy, Michaela Collins, Kaylee Fox, Alexandra Schmerge, Sarah Wilder, Bradley Gerhardt, Ranjit Chima, Rajit K. Basu, Lakhmir Chawla, Lin Fei

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Scopus citations

Abstract

Introduction: Acute kidney injury (AKI) occurs in one-fourth of children and young adults admitted to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Severe AKI (sAKI; Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes stage 2 or 3) is associated with morbidity and mortality. An AKI risk stratification system, the Renal Angina Index (RAI) calculated at 12 hours of admission, exhibits excellent performance to rule out sAKI at 72 hours of admission. We found that integration of urine neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) with RAI improves prediction of sAKI. We now report the first-year results after implementation of our prospective automated RAI-NGAL clinical decision support (CDS) program. Methods: Patients 3 months to 25 years of age were eligible. Admission order sets have a conditional order for urine NGAL released when a 12-hour RAI ≥8. The primary outcome was sAKI any time at days 2 to 4 of admission. We assessed performance of the RAI and RAI+/NGAL to predict the primary outcome. Results: A total of 1427 unique patients accounted for 1575 admissions. In 147 admissions, RAI was ≥8. RAI <8 had negative predictive value (NPV) of 0.98 (95% CI 0.97–0.99); RAI ≥ 8 had positive predictive value (PPV) of 0.37 (95% CI 0.30–0.46) to predict days 2 to 4 sAKI (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC-ROC] 0.88 [95% CI 0.84–0.92]). Of 147 RAI+ patients, 89 had NGAL available. RAI/NGAL combination improved PPV (0.64, 95% CI 0.50–0.79) without decrement in NPV (0.98, 95% CI 0.97–0.98). Conclusion: AKI biomarker assessment directed by risk stratification improves prediction of sAKI in critically ill children and young adults. This CDS process has potential to enrich the population for interventional study, although improvement to adherence to CDS is needed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1842-1849
Number of pages8
JournalKidney International Reports
Volume7
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2022

Keywords

  • acute kidney injury
  • neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin
  • renal angina index
  • severe AKI

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology

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