Intercalation and exfoliation of clay nanoplatelets in epoxy-based nanocomposites: TEM and XRD observations

Hiroaki Miyagawa*, Lawrence T. Drzal, Hiroaki Miyagawa*, Jerrold A. Carsello

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A (DGEBA) and diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F (DGEBF) reinforced with organo-montmorillonite clay nanoplatelets were investigated using anhydride- and amine-curing agents. The sonication technique was used to process epoxy/clay nanocomposites. The basal spacing of clay nanoplatelets was observed by wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) techniques, and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the basal spacing of clay nanoplatelets in epoxy matrix was expanded after mixing with either DGEBA/DGEBF or methyltetrahydrophthalic-anhydride (MTHPA) curing agent. The sonication technique provided larger d-spacing of clay nanoplatelets. Because of the different curing temperatures, MTHPA-cured epoxy/clay nanocomposites produced more expanded d-spacing of clay nanoplatelets modified with methyl, tallow, bis(2-hydroxyethyl) quaternary ammonium (MT2EtOH) than triethylenetetraminecured nanocomposites. Depending on the selection of curing agent and organic modification for clay nanoplatelets, the d-spacing was expanded to be up to 8.72 nm.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)452-463
Number of pages12
JournalPolymer Engineering and Science
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2006

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Chemistry
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Materials Chemistry


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