Interictal scalp fast ripple occurrence and high frequency oscillation slow wave coupling in epileptic spasms

Danilo Bernardo*, Hiroki Nariai, Shaun A. Hussain, Raman Sankar, Joyce Y. Wu

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Objective: Intracranial high frequency oscillation (HFO) occurrence rate (OR) and slow wave activity (SWA) coupling are potential markers of epileptogenicity in epileptic spasms (ES). Scalp ripple (R) detection and SWA coupling have been described in ES; however, the feasibility of scalp fast ripple (FR) detection and measurement of scalp FR coupling to SWA is not known. We evaluated interictal scalp R and FR OR and SWA coupling in pre-treatment EEG in children with short-term treatment-refractory ES compared to short-term treatment non-refractory ES. Methods: We retrospectively identified children with ES and identified HFOs using a semi-automated HFO detector on pre-treatment scalp EEG during sleep. We evaluated HFO OR and event-triggered modulation index (MI) to quantify R (100–250 Hz) and FR (250–600 Hz) coupling strength with different SWA passbands (0.5–1, 1–2, 2–3, 3–4, and 4–8 Hz). We used HFO phasor transform and circular statistics to evaluate phase coupling angle distributions. Results: We identified 15 children with ES with pre-treatment EEG recorded at 2000 Hz. Thirteen out of 15 patients had HFOs and were included for analysis. There were six treatment responders and seven nonresponders three months after treatment initiation. Responders and nonresponders were similar in age (6.1 vs 7.2 mo), ES diagnosis duration (0.7 vs 2.6 mo), and HFO OR (R: 1.07 vs 2.30/min, FR: 0.43 vs 1.96/min). No differences between responders and nonresponders were seen in HFO MI at different SWA. Coupling of R and FR to 2–3 Hz SWA demonstrated increased incidence rate ratio in nonresponders relative to responders at distinct phase coupling angle distributions. Conclusions: This study demonstrates the feasibility of interictal scalp R and FR detection and quantification of scalp R and FR coupling to SWA in ES. Significance: HFO phase coupling with SWA may be useful as a marker of potential treatment refractoriness in patients with ES.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1433-1443
Number of pages11
JournalClinical Neurophysiology
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2020


  • Cross-frequency coupling
  • High frequency oscillations
  • Infantile spasms
  • Pediatric epilepsy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Sensory Systems
  • Neurology
  • Clinical Neurology
  • Physiology (medical)


Dive into the research topics of 'Interictal scalp fast ripple occurrence and high frequency oscillation slow wave coupling in epileptic spasms'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this