International Genetic Testing and Counseling Practices for Parkinson's Disease

Rachel Saunders-Pullman*, Deborah Raymond, Roberto A. Ortega, Ali Shalash, Emilia Gatto, Mehri Salari, Maggie Markgraf, Roy N. Alcalay, Deborah Mascalzoni, Niccolò E. Mencacci, Vincenzo Bonifati, Marcelo Merello, Sun Ju Chung, Ivana Novakovic, Soraya Bardien, Gian Pal, Anne Hall, Nobutaka Hattori, Timothy Lynch, Avner ThalerCarolyn M. Sue, Tatiana Foroud, Jennifer Verbrugge, Jeanine Schulze, Lola Cook, Karen Marder, Oksana Suchowersky, Christine Klein, Tatyana Simuni

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: There is growing clinical and research utilization of genetic testing in Parkinson's disease (PD), including direct-to-consumer testing. Objectives: The aim is to determine the international landscape of genetic testing in PD to inform future worldwide recommendations. Methods: A web-based survey assessing current practices, concerns, and barriers to genetic testing and counseling was administered to the International Parkinson and Movement Disorders Society membership. Results: Common hurdles across sites included cost and access to genetic testing, and counseling, as well as education on genetic counseling. Region-dependent differences in access to and availability of testing and counseling were most notable in Africa. High-income countries also demonstrated heterogeneity, with European nations more likely to have genetic testing covered through insurance than Pan-American and Asian countries. Conclusions: This survey highlights not only diversity of barriers in different regions but also the shared and highly actionable needs for improved education and access to genetic counseling and testing for PD worldwide.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1527-1535
Number of pages9
JournalMovement Disorders
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2023


  • Parkinson's disease
  • disparities
  • genetic counseling
  • genetic testing
  • genetics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neurology


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