Efficient imaging of biomolecules, two-dimensional materials, and electromagnetic fields depends on retrieval of the phase of transmitted electrons. We demonstrate a method to measure phase in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM) using a nanofabricated diffraction grating to produce multiple probe beams. The measured phase is more interpretable than phase-contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy techniques without an off-axis reference wave, and the resolution could surpass that of off-axis electron holography. We apply this technique, called STEM holography, to image nanoparticles, carbon substrates, and electric fields. The contrast observed in experiments agrees well with contrast predicted in simulations.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Physics and Astronomy(all)