Intracardiac and Vascular Hemodynamics with Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance in Heart Failure

Aakash N. Gupta, Michael Markl, Mohammed S.M. Elbaz*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


In heart failure (HF), the impaired heart loses its ability to competently eject blood during systole or fill with blood during diastole, manifesting in multifaceted abnormal intracardiac or intravascular flow dynamics. Conventional imaging techniques are limited in their ability to evaluate multidirectional multidimensional flow alterations in HF. Four-dimensional (4-D) flow magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has emerged as a promising technique to comprehensively visualize and quantify changes in 3-dimensional blood flow dynamics in complex cardiovascular diseases. This article reviews emerging applications of 4-D flow MRI hemodynamic markers in HF and etiologies at risk of progressing to HF.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)135-147
Number of pages13
JournalHeart Failure Clinics
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2021


  • 4-D flow MRI
  • Heart failure
  • Hemodynamics
  • Intracardiac flow
  • Intravascular flow

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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