Intracranial hemorrhage

Andrew M. Naidech*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

15 Scopus citations

Abstract

Intracranial hemorrhage is a life-threatening condition, the outcome of which canbeimproved by intensive care. Intracranial hemorrhage may be spontaneous, precipitated by an underlying vascular malformation, induced by trauma, or related to therapeutic anticoagulation. The goals of critical care are to assess the proximate cause, minimize the risks of hemorrhage expansion through blood pressure control and correction of coagulopathy, and obliterate vascular lesions with a high risk of acute rebleeding. Simple bedside scales and interpretation of computed tomography scans assess the severity of neurological injury. Myocardial stunning and pulmonary edema related to neurological injury should be anticipated, and can usually be managed. Fever (often not from infection) iscommonand can be effectively treated, although therapeutic cooling has not been shown to improve outcomes after intracranial hemorrhage. Most functional and cognitive recovery takes place weeks to months after discharge; expected levels of functional independence (no disability, disability but independence with a device, dependence) may guide conversations with patient representatives. Goals of care impact mortality, with do-not-resuscitate status increasing the predicted mortality for any level of severity of intraparenchymal hemorrhage. Future directions include refining the use of bedside neuromonitoring (electroencephalogram, invasive monitors), novel approaches to reduce intracranial hemorrhage expansion, minimizing vasospasm, and refining the assessment of quality of life to guide rehabilitation and therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)998-1006
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican journal of respiratory and critical care medicine
Volume184
Issue number9
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2011

Keywords

  • Cerebral hemorrhage
  • Intracranial hemorrhage
  • Outcomes
  • Subarachnoid hemorrhage

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

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