Intraneuronal β-amyloid aggregates, neurodegeneration, and neuron loss in transgenic mice with five familial Alzheimer's disease mutations: Potential factors in amyloid plaque formation

Holly Oakley, Sarah L. Cole, Sreemathi Logan, Erika Maus, Pei Shao, Jeffery Craft, Angela Guillozet-Bongaarts, Masuo Ohno, John Disterhoft, Linda Van Eldik, Robert Berry, Robert Vassar*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1254 Scopus citations

Abstract

Mutations in the genes for amyloid precursor protein (APP) and presenilins (PS1, PS2) increase production of β-amyloid 42 (Aβ42) and cause familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD). Transgenic mice that express FAD mutant APP and PS1 overproduce Aβ42 and exhibit amyloid plaque pathology similar to that found in AD, but most transgenic models develop plaques slowly. To accelerate plaque development and investigate the effects of very high cerebral Aβ42 levels, we generated APP/PS1 double transgenic mice that coexpress five FAD mutations (5XFAD mice) and additively increase Aβ42 production. 5XFAD mice generate Aβ42 almost exclusively and rapidly accumulate massive cerebral Aβ42 levels. Amyloid deposition (and gliosis) begins at 2 months and reaches a very large burden, especially in subiculum and deep cortical layers. Intraneuronal Aβ42 accumulates in 5XFAD brain starting at 1.5 months of age (before plaques form), is aggregated (as determined by thioflavin S staining), and occurs within neuron soma and neurites. Some amyloid deposits originate within morphologically abnormal neuron soma that contain intraneuronal Aβ. Synaptic markers synaptophysin, syntaxin, and postsynaptic density-95 decrease with age in 5XFAD brain, and large pyramidal neurons in cortical layer 5 and subiculum are lost. In addition, levels of the activation subunit of cyclin-dependent kinase 5, p25, are elevated significantly at 9 months in 5XFAD brain, although an upward trend is observed by 3 months of age, before significant neurodegeneration or neuron loss. Finally, 5XFAD mice have impaired memory in the Y-maze. Thus, 5XFAD mice rapidly recapitulate major features of AD amyloid pathology and may be useful models of intraneuronal Aβ42-induced neurodegeneration and amyloid plaque formation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)10129-10140
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Neuroscience
Volume26
Issue number40
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 4 2006

Keywords

  • Alzheimer's disease
  • Amyloid plaques
  • Intraneuronal Aβ
  • Neuron loss
  • Transgenic mice

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Neuroscience(all)

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