Intrapyloric Botulinum Toxin Injection for Refractory Nausea and Vomiting in Pediatric Patients

Peter T. Osgood*, Bonnie S. Essner, Laura Fountain, Erin C. Sullivan, Carol Meegan, John E. Fortunato

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objectives: Chronic nausea and vomiting may be associated with gastroparesis or other conditions. Poor mechanistic understanding of symptoms often precludes targeted therapy. Numerous case series suggest that intrapyloric botulinum toxin injection (IPBI) may be beneficial in treating gastroparesis and dyspepsia in children. We hypothesized that nausea, vomiting, and other symptoms, independent of gastroparesis, may improve with IPBI. We sought to identify gastric emptying (GE) and manometric patterns in IPBI responders versus nonresponders. Methods: Electronic records of 25 pediatric patients who received IPBI for refractory nausea, vomiting, or both were retrospectively reviewed. We assessed symptom improvement post-IPBI and compared symptoms, GE, and antroduodenal manometry (ADM) findings between IPBI responders and nonresponders. Results: At least one major symptom improved in 19 patients (76%) after IPBI. Of 22 patients completing a GE study, 14 had delayed GE with no significant difference between IPBI responders and nonresponders. Of 22 patients who underwent ADM, 18 had normal fasting peristalsis, 5 had postprandial antral hypomotility, 4 had neuropathic findings, and 19 had pylorospasm. IPBI responders, compared to nonresponders, demonstrated higher antral pressures with feeding (P < 0.0001) and shorter duration of pylorospasm (P = 0.0036). Antral pressures did not differ significantly with fasting or following motilin agonists. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that IPBI may have therapeutic benefit in pediatric patients with chronic nausea and/or vomiting, independent of gastroparesis. ADM findings of intact antral peristalsis and elevated antral pressures, in conjunction with efficacy of IPBI, support pyloric non-relaxation as a potential contributor to nausea and/or vomiting in pediatric patients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)726-733
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition
Issue number6
StatePublished - Dec 1 2023


  • delayed gastric emptying
  • dyspepsia
  • gastroparesis
  • pylorus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Gastroenterology


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