Purpose: To evaluate the use of contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with conventional T1-weighted gradient-recalled echo (GRE) and inversion-recovery (IR)-prepared GRE methods to quantitatively measure the size of irreversible electroporation (IRE) ablation zones in the liver in a rat model. Materials and Methods: All studies were approved by the institutional animal care and use committee and were performed in accordance with institutional guidelines. Seventeen adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. Rats in groups 1-3 (n = 15 total) underwent IRE performed by using different IRE parameters after gadopentetate dimeglumine administration. Rats in group 4 (n = 2) underwent IRE ablation without prior gadopentetate dimeglumine injection to serve as control animals. MR imaging measurements (with conventional T1-weighted GRE and IR-prepared GRE methods) were performed 2 hours after IRE to predict the IRE ablation zones, which were correlated with pathology-confirmed necrosis areas 24 hours after IRE by using the Spearman correlation coefficient. Bland-Altman plots were also generated to investigate the agreement between MR imaging-measured ablation zones and reference standard histologic measurements of corresponding ablation zones. Results: The necrotic areas measured on the pathology images were well correlated with the hyperintense regions measured on T1-weighted GRE images(r = 0.891, P < .001) and normal tissue-nulled IR images (r = 0.874, P < .001); pathology measurements were also well correlated with the smaller hyperintense regions measured on those IR images with inversion times specifically selected to null signal from the peripheral penumbra surrounding the ablation zone (r = 0.939, P < .001). Bland-Altman plots indicated that these penumbra-nulled IR images provided more accurate predictions of IRE ablation zones, with T1-weighted GRE measurements tending to overestimate ablation zone sizes. Conclusion: Contrast-enhanced MR imaging permits accurate depiction of ablated tissue zones after IRE procedures. IR-prepared contrast-enhanced MR imaging can be used to quantitatively measure IRE ablation zones in the liver.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging