Is higher-order uncertainty needed?

Richard E. Neapolitan*

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    10 Scopus citations


    In the artificial intelligence and decision making communities, there seems to be agreement on the calculations used in most problems that are solved using 'higher-order uncertainty', but disagreement on the terminology used. The purpose here is to show that these problems can be modeled using traditional first-order beliefs, and that, when they are modeled this way, the calculations are the same as the 'higher-order' calculations. The disagreements arise because researchers rephrase first-order beliefs in various guises of higher-order uncertainty. I argue that we should stay with the traditional first-order formulations of the problems.

    Original languageEnglish (US)
    Pages (from-to)294-302
    Number of pages9
    JournalIEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics Part A:Systems and Humans.
    Issue number3
    StatePublished - 1996

    ASJC Scopus subject areas

    • Software
    • Control and Systems Engineering
    • Human-Computer Interaction
    • Computer Science Applications
    • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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