Is mistrust self-fulfilling?

Ernesto Reuben*, Paola Sapienza, Luigi Zingales

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

47 Scopus citations


We study experimentally the effect of expectations on whether trust is repaid. Subjects respond with untrustworthy behavior if they see that little is expected of them. This suggests that guilt aversion plays an important role in the repayment of trust.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)89-91
Number of pages3
JournalEconomics Letters
Issue number2
StatePublished - Aug 1 2009


  • Guilt aversion
  • Reciprocity
  • Trust
  • Trustworthiness

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Finance
  • Economics and Econometrics

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