Is the impedance index (ht2/R) significant in predicting total body water?

Robert F. Kushner*, Dale A. Schoeller, Carla R. Fjeld, Lynn Danford

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

97 Scopus citations


We investigated the general utility of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and the implications of BIA theory in populations of various ages from infancy to adulthood by developing a single impedance equation. Four subject data sets representing 62 adults, 37 prepubertal children, 44 preschool children, and 32 premature low-birth-weight neonates were combined. Subjects were randomly divided into a development group (n = 116) and a cross-validation group (n = 59). The single best predictor of total body water (TBW) was height2/ resistance (ht2/R), which explained 99% of the variation in TBW (SEE = 1.67 kg). The addition of weight reduced the SEE to 1.41 kg. A significant bias was only seen in the preschool children. These results were confirmed in the cross-validation group and the best prediction formula was TBW = 0.59 ht2/R + 0.065 wt + 0.04. We conclude that the impedance index (ht2/R) is a significant predictor of TBW and that there is some improvement in prediction of TBW by inclusion of a weight term.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)835-839
Number of pages5
JournalAmerican Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Issue number5
StatePublished - 1992


  • Anthropometry
  • Bioelectrical impedance analysis
  • Body composition

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nutrition and Dietetics
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)


Dive into the research topics of 'Is the impedance index (ht2/R) significant in predicting total body water?'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this