Background. Mitral regurgitation (MR) is a common complication of ischemic heart disease, and its presence portends adverse outcomes. As the exact mechanisms of ischemic MR are not well defined, we characterized left ventricular global geometry, regional function, and regional myocardial scarring, in addition to mitral valve apparatus geometry, using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of ischemic heart disease patients with left ventricular dysfunction and varying degrees of ischemic MR. Methods. Sixty patients with varying degrees of MR (none, mild, moderate, and severe) determined by echocardiography and referred for MRI assessment of ischemic heart disease were included. Left ventricular geometric, functional, and scar measurements in addition to mitral valve geometric measurements were evaluated. Results. Clinical characteristics found to be significant predictors of degree of MR included severity of coronary artery disease (p < 0.05), completeness of myocardial perfusion (p < 0.005), and average systolic blood pressure (p < 0.05). Mitral systolic tenting area (p < 0.0001) in a statistical model with scarring of the anterior-lateral region (p < 0.05) proved to be the most powerful predictor of MR severity (r2 = 0.31). Mitral annular dilatation in the anterior-posterior direction (p < 0.0001) and diminished LV systolic function (p < 0.005) were important determinants of mitral systolic tenting area (r2 = 0.57). Conclusions. Mitral tenting in combination with regional left ventricular myocardial scarring are important mechanisms to the development of ischemic MR. Surgical annuloplasty addresses mitral tenting, but has little impact on the effect of regional scarring. Moderate-to-severe ischemic MR develops in patients with regional scarring of the anterior-lateral and inferior-posterior regions, and new surgical developments should take this into account.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine