BACKGROUND: The authors investigated the hypothesis that isoflurane modulates nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and protection against myocardial infarction through time-dependent changes in expression of key NO regulatory proteins, guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase (GTPCH)-1, the rate-limiting enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS).
METHODS: Myocardial infarct size, NO production (ozone-mediated chemiluminescence), GTPCH-1, and eNOS expression (real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and western blotting) were measured in male Wistar rats with or without anesthetic preconditioning (APC; 1.0 minimum alveolar concentration isoflurane for 30 min) and in the presence or absence of an inhibitor of GTPCH-1, 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine.
RESULTS: NO2 production (158 ± 16 and 150 ± 13 pmol/mg protein at baseline in control and APC groups, respectively) was significantly (P < 0.05) increased 1.5 ± 0.1 and 1.4 ± 0.1 fold by APC (n = 4) at 60 and 90 min of reperfusion, respectively, concomitantly, with increased expression of GTPCH-1 (1.3 ± 0.3 fold; n = 5) and eNOS (1.3 ± 0.2 fold; n = 5). In contrast, total NO (NO2 and NO3) was decreased after reperfusion in control experiments. Myocardial infarct size was decreased (43 ± 2% of the area at risk for infarction; n = 6) by APC compared with control experiments (57 ± 1%; n = 6). 2, 4-Diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine decreased total NO production at baseline (221 ± 25 and 175 ± 31 pmol/mg protein at baseline in control and APC groups, respectively), abolished isoflurane-induced increases in NO at reperfusion, and prevented reductions of myocardial infarct size by APC (60 ± 2%; n = 6).
CONCLUSION: APC favorably modulated a NO biosynthetic pathway by up-regulating GTPCH-1 and eNOS, and this action contributed to protection of myocardium against ischemia and reperfusion injury.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine