Isolating the effect of polymer-grafted nanoparticle interactions with matrix polymer from dispersion on composite property enhancement

The example of polypropylene/halloysite nanocomposites

Tong Wei, Kailong Jin, John M Torkelson*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Abstract

Interfacial effects can significantly perturb the properties of nanocomposites. Modification of filler surfaces can improve filler dispersion and compatibilize the polymer-filler interface, leading to property enhancements relative to composites made with unmodified filler. Here, we have isolated the effect of interactions between matrix polymer and polymer-grafted nanoparticles (PGNs) from dispersion quality and studied how the interactions affect the properties of polypropylene (PP)/halloysite nanotube hybrids in the absence of entanglements between matrix PP and grafted PP. We prepared PP hybrids with pristine halloysite nanotubes (p-HNT) or PP-grafted halloysite nanotubes (PP-g-HNT) up to 10 wt% filler using melt mixing or solid-state shear pulverization (SSSP). For melt-mixed samples, PGN-type filler yields better property enhancement than pristine filler, consistent with the combination of improved dispersion and polymer-filler interactions. As shown by microscopy and rheology, hybrids prepared by SSSP with p-HNT and PP-g-HNT fillers have very similar, high levels of dispersion, eliminating dispersion quality as a factor in property improvements. In comparison with well-dispersed PP/p-HNT nanocomposites at the same filler level, well-dispersed PP/PP-g-HNT nanocomposites prepared by SSSP exhibit enhanced tensile strength but the same values within error of Young's modulus and elongation at break when there is no entanglement between matrix polymer and grafted chains. Notably, at the same filler level, well-dispersed PP/PP-g-HNT nanocomposites exhibit higher crystallization rate and nucleation efficiency (NE) that is 2.5–4.5 times higher than well-dispersed PP/p-HNT hybrids. The impact of grafted PP chains on NE is so strong that at the same filler level but with worse dispersion, PP/PP-g-HNT hybrids made by melt mixing exhibit NE values 2.1 to 3.4 times higher than well-dispersed PP/p-HNT nanocomposites made by SSSP.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)38-50
Number of pages13
JournalPolymer
Volume176
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 2 2019

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Polypropylenes
Polymer matrix
Nanocomposites
Polymers
Nanoparticles
Fillers
Composite materials
Nanotubes
Nucleation
clay
Crystallization
Rheology

Keywords

  • Halloysite nanotubes
  • Polymer nanocomposites
  • Polymer-filler interactions

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Organic Chemistry
  • Polymers and Plastics
  • Materials Chemistry

Cite this

@article{2ac6e78754f849d8855cb1f047cd97e0,
title = "Isolating the effect of polymer-grafted nanoparticle interactions with matrix polymer from dispersion on composite property enhancement: The example of polypropylene/halloysite nanocomposites",
abstract = "Interfacial effects can significantly perturb the properties of nanocomposites. Modification of filler surfaces can improve filler dispersion and compatibilize the polymer-filler interface, leading to property enhancements relative to composites made with unmodified filler. Here, we have isolated the effect of interactions between matrix polymer and polymer-grafted nanoparticles (PGNs) from dispersion quality and studied how the interactions affect the properties of polypropylene (PP)/halloysite nanotube hybrids in the absence of entanglements between matrix PP and grafted PP. We prepared PP hybrids with pristine halloysite nanotubes (p-HNT) or PP-grafted halloysite nanotubes (PP-g-HNT) up to 10 wt{\%} filler using melt mixing or solid-state shear pulverization (SSSP). For melt-mixed samples, PGN-type filler yields better property enhancement than pristine filler, consistent with the combination of improved dispersion and polymer-filler interactions. As shown by microscopy and rheology, hybrids prepared by SSSP with p-HNT and PP-g-HNT fillers have very similar, high levels of dispersion, eliminating dispersion quality as a factor in property improvements. In comparison with well-dispersed PP/p-HNT nanocomposites at the same filler level, well-dispersed PP/PP-g-HNT nanocomposites prepared by SSSP exhibit enhanced tensile strength but the same values within error of Young's modulus and elongation at break when there is no entanglement between matrix polymer and grafted chains. Notably, at the same filler level, well-dispersed PP/PP-g-HNT nanocomposites exhibit higher crystallization rate and nucleation efficiency (NE) that is 2.5–4.5 times higher than well-dispersed PP/p-HNT hybrids. The impact of grafted PP chains on NE is so strong that at the same filler level but with worse dispersion, PP/PP-g-HNT hybrids made by melt mixing exhibit NE values 2.1 to 3.4 times higher than well-dispersed PP/p-HNT nanocomposites made by SSSP.",
keywords = "Halloysite nanotubes, Polymer nanocomposites, Polymer-filler interactions",
author = "Tong Wei and Kailong Jin and Torkelson, {John M}",
year = "2019",
month = "8",
day = "2",
doi = "10.1016/j.polymer.2019.05.038",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "176",
pages = "38--50",
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T1 - Isolating the effect of polymer-grafted nanoparticle interactions with matrix polymer from dispersion on composite property enhancement

T2 - The example of polypropylene/halloysite nanocomposites

AU - Wei, Tong

AU - Jin, Kailong

AU - Torkelson, John M

PY - 2019/8/2

Y1 - 2019/8/2

N2 - Interfacial effects can significantly perturb the properties of nanocomposites. Modification of filler surfaces can improve filler dispersion and compatibilize the polymer-filler interface, leading to property enhancements relative to composites made with unmodified filler. Here, we have isolated the effect of interactions between matrix polymer and polymer-grafted nanoparticles (PGNs) from dispersion quality and studied how the interactions affect the properties of polypropylene (PP)/halloysite nanotube hybrids in the absence of entanglements between matrix PP and grafted PP. We prepared PP hybrids with pristine halloysite nanotubes (p-HNT) or PP-grafted halloysite nanotubes (PP-g-HNT) up to 10 wt% filler using melt mixing or solid-state shear pulverization (SSSP). For melt-mixed samples, PGN-type filler yields better property enhancement than pristine filler, consistent with the combination of improved dispersion and polymer-filler interactions. As shown by microscopy and rheology, hybrids prepared by SSSP with p-HNT and PP-g-HNT fillers have very similar, high levels of dispersion, eliminating dispersion quality as a factor in property improvements. In comparison with well-dispersed PP/p-HNT nanocomposites at the same filler level, well-dispersed PP/PP-g-HNT nanocomposites prepared by SSSP exhibit enhanced tensile strength but the same values within error of Young's modulus and elongation at break when there is no entanglement between matrix polymer and grafted chains. Notably, at the same filler level, well-dispersed PP/PP-g-HNT nanocomposites exhibit higher crystallization rate and nucleation efficiency (NE) that is 2.5–4.5 times higher than well-dispersed PP/p-HNT hybrids. The impact of grafted PP chains on NE is so strong that at the same filler level but with worse dispersion, PP/PP-g-HNT hybrids made by melt mixing exhibit NE values 2.1 to 3.4 times higher than well-dispersed PP/p-HNT nanocomposites made by SSSP.

AB - Interfacial effects can significantly perturb the properties of nanocomposites. Modification of filler surfaces can improve filler dispersion and compatibilize the polymer-filler interface, leading to property enhancements relative to composites made with unmodified filler. Here, we have isolated the effect of interactions between matrix polymer and polymer-grafted nanoparticles (PGNs) from dispersion quality and studied how the interactions affect the properties of polypropylene (PP)/halloysite nanotube hybrids in the absence of entanglements between matrix PP and grafted PP. We prepared PP hybrids with pristine halloysite nanotubes (p-HNT) or PP-grafted halloysite nanotubes (PP-g-HNT) up to 10 wt% filler using melt mixing or solid-state shear pulverization (SSSP). For melt-mixed samples, PGN-type filler yields better property enhancement than pristine filler, consistent with the combination of improved dispersion and polymer-filler interactions. As shown by microscopy and rheology, hybrids prepared by SSSP with p-HNT and PP-g-HNT fillers have very similar, high levels of dispersion, eliminating dispersion quality as a factor in property improvements. In comparison with well-dispersed PP/p-HNT nanocomposites at the same filler level, well-dispersed PP/PP-g-HNT nanocomposites prepared by SSSP exhibit enhanced tensile strength but the same values within error of Young's modulus and elongation at break when there is no entanglement between matrix polymer and grafted chains. Notably, at the same filler level, well-dispersed PP/PP-g-HNT nanocomposites exhibit higher crystallization rate and nucleation efficiency (NE) that is 2.5–4.5 times higher than well-dispersed PP/p-HNT hybrids. The impact of grafted PP chains on NE is so strong that at the same filler level but with worse dispersion, PP/PP-g-HNT hybrids made by melt mixing exhibit NE values 2.1 to 3.4 times higher than well-dispersed PP/p-HNT nanocomposites made by SSSP.

KW - Halloysite nanotubes

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