Item Banks for Measuring the Effect of Blood Pressure Dysregulation on Health-Related Quality of Life in Persons With Spinal Cord Injury

Noelle E. Carlozzi*, Michael A. Kallen, Kel G. Morin, Denise C. Fyffe, Jill M. Wecht

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Objective: To report on the development and calibration of the new Blood Pressure Dysregulation Measurement System (BPD-MS) item banks that assess the effect of BPD on health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and the daily activities of Veterans and non-Veterans with spinal cord injury (SCI). Design: Cross-sectional survey study. Setting: Two Veteran Affairs medical centers and a SCI model system site. Participants: 454 respondents with SCI (n=262 American Veterans and n=192 non-Veterans; N=454). Interventions: Not applicable Main Outcome Measures: The BPD-MS item banks. Results: BPD item pools were developed and refined using literature reviews, qualitative data from focus groups, and cognitive debriefing of persons with SCI and professional caregivers. The item banks then underwent expert review, reading level assessment, and translatability review prior to field testing. The items pools consisted of 180 unique questions (items). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, item response theory modeling, and differential item function investigations resulted in item banks that included a total of 150 items: 75 describing the effect of autonomic dysreflexia on HRQOL, 55 describing the effect of low blood pressure (LBP) on HRQOL, and 20 describing the effect of LBP on daily activities. In addition, 10-item short forms were constructed based on item response theory-derived item information values and the clinical relevance of item content. Conclusions: The new BPD-MS item banks and corresponding 10-item short forms were developed using established rigorous measurement development standards, which represents the first BPD-specific patient-reported outcomes measurement system unique for use in the SCI population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalArchives of physical medicine and rehabilitation
StateAccepted/In press - 2023


  • Autonomic dysreflexia
  • Blood pressure
  • Item response theory
  • Measurement
  • Orthostatic hypotension
  • Paraplegia
  • Rehabilitation
  • Tetraplegia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Rehabilitation
  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation


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