Here, we report on six unrelated individuals, all presenting with early-onset global developmental delay, associated with impaired motor, speech and cognitive development, partly with developmental epileptic encephalopathy and physical dysmorphisms. All individuals carry heterozygous missense variants of KCND2, which encodes the voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel α-subunit Kv4.2. The amino acid substitutions associated with the variants, p.(Glu323Lys) (E323K), p.(Pro403Ala) (P403A), p.(Val404Leu) (V404L) and p.(Val404Met) (V404M), affect sites known to be critical for channel gating. To unravel their likely pathogenicity, recombinant mutant channels were studied in the absence and presence of auxiliary β-subunits under two-electrode voltage clamp in Xenopus oocytes. All channel mutants exhibited slowed and incomplete macroscopic inactivation, and the P403A variant in addition slowed activation. Co-expression of KChIP2 or DPP6 augmented the functional expression of both wild-type and mutant channels; however, the auxiliary β-subunit-mediated gating modifications differed from wild type and among mutants. To simulate the putative setting in the affected individuals, heteromeric Kv4.2 channels (wild type + mutant) were studied as ternary complexes (containing both KChIP2 and DPP6). In the heteromeric ternary configuration, the E323K variant exhibited only marginal functional alterations compared to homomeric wild-type ternary, compatible with mild loss-of-function. By contrast, the P403A, V404L and V404M variants displayed strong gating impairment in the heteromeric ternary configuration, compatible with loss-of-function or gain-of-function. Our results support the etiological involvement of Kv4.2 channel gating impairment in early-onset monogenic global developmental delay. In addition, they suggest that gain-of-function mechanisms associated with a substitution of V404 increase epileptic seizure susceptibility.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Molecular Biology