Kepler Planet Masses and Eccentricities from TTV Analysis

Sam Hadden, Yoram Lithwick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

52 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

We conduct a uniform analysis of the transit timing variations (TTVs) of 145 planets from 55 Kepler multiplanet systems to infer planet masses and eccentricities. Eighty of these planets do not have previously reported mass and eccentricity measurements. We employ two complementary methods to fit TTVs: Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations based on N-body integration, and an analytic fitting approach. Mass measurements of 49 planets, including 12 without previously reported masses, meet our criterion for classification as robust. Using mass and radius measurements, we infer the masses of planets' gaseous envelopes for both our TTV sample and transiting planets with radial velocity observations. Insight from analytic TTV formulae allows us to partially circumvent degeneracies inherent to inferring eccentricities from TTV observations. We find that planet eccentricities are generally small, typically a few percent, but in many instances are nonzero.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number5
JournalAstronomical Journal
Volume154
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2017

Fingerprint

transit
eccentricity
planets
planet
time measurement
Markov chains
Markov chain
analysis
radial velocity
envelopes
radii
simulation

Keywords

  • planets and satellites: detection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Astronomy and Astrophysics
  • Space and Planetary Science

Cite this

@article{b7bc769eff2a46bc99b7343a84e4ab80,
title = "Kepler Planet Masses and Eccentricities from TTV Analysis",
abstract = "We conduct a uniform analysis of the transit timing variations (TTVs) of 145 planets from 55 Kepler multiplanet systems to infer planet masses and eccentricities. Eighty of these planets do not have previously reported mass and eccentricity measurements. We employ two complementary methods to fit TTVs: Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations based on N-body integration, and an analytic fitting approach. Mass measurements of 49 planets, including 12 without previously reported masses, meet our criterion for classification as robust. Using mass and radius measurements, we infer the masses of planets' gaseous envelopes for both our TTV sample and transiting planets with radial velocity observations. Insight from analytic TTV formulae allows us to partially circumvent degeneracies inherent to inferring eccentricities from TTV observations. We find that planet eccentricities are generally small, typically a few percent, but in many instances are nonzero.",
keywords = "planets and satellites: detection",
author = "Sam Hadden and Yoram Lithwick",
year = "2017",
month = "7",
doi = "10.3847/1538-3881/aa71ef",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "154",
journal = "Astronomical Journal",
issn = "0004-6256",
publisher = "IOP Publishing Ltd.",
number = "1",

}

Kepler Planet Masses and Eccentricities from TTV Analysis. / Hadden, Sam; Lithwick, Yoram.

In: Astronomical Journal, Vol. 154, No. 1, 5, 07.2017.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Kepler Planet Masses and Eccentricities from TTV Analysis

AU - Hadden, Sam

AU - Lithwick, Yoram

PY - 2017/7

Y1 - 2017/7

N2 - We conduct a uniform analysis of the transit timing variations (TTVs) of 145 planets from 55 Kepler multiplanet systems to infer planet masses and eccentricities. Eighty of these planets do not have previously reported mass and eccentricity measurements. We employ two complementary methods to fit TTVs: Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations based on N-body integration, and an analytic fitting approach. Mass measurements of 49 planets, including 12 without previously reported masses, meet our criterion for classification as robust. Using mass and radius measurements, we infer the masses of planets' gaseous envelopes for both our TTV sample and transiting planets with radial velocity observations. Insight from analytic TTV formulae allows us to partially circumvent degeneracies inherent to inferring eccentricities from TTV observations. We find that planet eccentricities are generally small, typically a few percent, but in many instances are nonzero.

AB - We conduct a uniform analysis of the transit timing variations (TTVs) of 145 planets from 55 Kepler multiplanet systems to infer planet masses and eccentricities. Eighty of these planets do not have previously reported mass and eccentricity measurements. We employ two complementary methods to fit TTVs: Markov chain Monte Carlo simulations based on N-body integration, and an analytic fitting approach. Mass measurements of 49 planets, including 12 without previously reported masses, meet our criterion for classification as robust. Using mass and radius measurements, we infer the masses of planets' gaseous envelopes for both our TTV sample and transiting planets with radial velocity observations. Insight from analytic TTV formulae allows us to partially circumvent degeneracies inherent to inferring eccentricities from TTV observations. We find that planet eccentricities are generally small, typically a few percent, but in many instances are nonzero.

KW - planets and satellites: detection

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85024408952&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85024408952&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3847/1538-3881/aa71ef

DO - 10.3847/1538-3881/aa71ef

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85024408952

VL - 154

JO - Astronomical Journal

JF - Astronomical Journal

SN - 0004-6256

IS - 1

M1 - 5

ER -