Knowledge, opinions and compliance related to the 100% smoke-free law in hospitality venues in Kampala, Uganda: Cross-sectional results from the KOMPLY Project

Shannon Gravely*, Kellen Namusisi Nyamurungi, Steven Ndugwa Kabwama, Gabriel Okello, Lindsay Robertson, Kelvin Khow Chuan Heng, Achiri Elvis Ndikum, Adeniyi Samuel Oginni, Jean Christophe Rusatira, Socrates Kakoulides, Mark D. Huffman, Salim Yusuf, Eduardo Bianco

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Objective This study evaluated knowledge, opinions and compliance related to Uganda's comprehensive smoke-free law among hospitality venues in Kampala Uganda. Design This multi-method study presents cross-sectional findings of the extent of compliance in the early phase of Uganda's comprehensive smoke-free law (2 months postimplementation; pre-enforcement). Setting Bars, pubs and restaurants in Kampala Uganda. Procedure and participants A two-stage stratified cluster sampling procedure was used to select hospitality sites stratified by all five divisions in Kampala. A total of 222 establishments were selected for the study. One hospitality representative from each of the visited sites agreed to take part in a face-to-face administered questionnaire. A subsample of hospitality venues were randomly selected for tobacco air quality testing (n=108). Data were collected between June and August 2016. Outcome measures Knowledge and opinions of the smoke-free law among hospitality venue staff and owners. The level of compliance with the smoke-free law in hospitality venues through: (1) systematic objective observations (eg, active smoking, the presence of designated smoking areas, 'no smoking' signage) and (2) air quality by measuring the levels of tobacco particulate matter (PM 2.5) in both indoor and outdoor venues. Results Active smoking was observed in 18% of venues, 31% had visible 'no smoking' signage and 47% had visible cigarette remains. Among interviewed respondents, 57% agreed that they had not been adequately informed about the smoke-free law; however, 90% were supportive of the ban. Nearly all respondents (97%) agreed that the law will protect workers' health, but 32% believed that the law would cause financial losses at their establishment. Indoor PM 2.5 levels were hazardous (267.6 μg/m 3) in venues that allowed smoking and moderate (29.6 μg/m 3) in smoke-free establishments. Conclusions In the early phase of Uganda's smoke-free law, the level of compliance in hospitality venues settings in Kampala was suboptimal. Civil society and the media have strong potential to inform and educate the hospitality industry and smokers of the benefits and requirements of the smoke-free law.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number017601
JournalBMJ open
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018


  • enforcement
  • policy
  • secondhand/environmental exposure
  • smoking
  • tobacco control

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine(all)


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