Knowledge Retention and Clinical Skills Acquisition in Sexual and Gender Minority Health Curricula: A Systematic Review

Janke B. Mains-Mason, Eloho Ufomata, J. Klint Peebles, Cherie P. Dhar, Gina Sequeira, Rebekah Miller, Barbara Folb, Kristen L. Eckstrand*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


Purpose To identify exemplary medical education curricula, operationalized as curricula evaluating knowledge retention and/or clinical skills acquisition, for health care for sexual and gender minoritized (SGM) individuals and individuals born with a difference in sex development (DSD). Method The authors conducted a systematic review of the literature using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Searches were performed in PubMed/MEDLINE, The Cochrane Library, Web of Science, ERIC, Embase, PsycINFO, and the gray literature to identify studies that (1) pertained to undergraduate and/or graduate medical education, (2) addressed education on health care of SGM/DSD individuals, and (3) assessed knowledge retention and/or clinical skills acquisition in medical trainees. The final searches were run in March 2019 and rerun before final analyses in June and October 2020. Results Of 670 full-text articles reviewed, 7 met the inclusion criteria. Five of the 7 studies assessed trainee knowledge retention alone, 1 evaluated clinical skills acquisition alone, and 1 evaluated both outcomes. Studies covered education relevant to transgender health, endocrinology for patients born with DSDs, and HIV primary care. Only 1 study fully mapped to the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) SGM/DSD competency recommendations. Six studies reported institutional funding and development support. No studies described teaching SGM/DSD health care for individuals with multiply minoritized identities or engaging the broader SGM/DSD community in medical education curriculum development and implementation. Conclusions Curriculum development in SGM/DSD health care should target knowledge retention and clinical skills acquisition in line with AAMC competency recommendations. Knowledge and skill sets for responsible and equitable care are those that account for structures of power and oppression and cocreate curricula with people who are SGM and/or born with DSDs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1847-1853
Number of pages7
JournalAcademic Medicine
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1 2022

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education


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