Background: Transformation of follicular lymphoma most typically occurs as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, however other forms of transformation such as classic Hodgkin lymphoma and lymphoblastic transformation can occur. Secondary malignant histiocytosis also represents a rare form of transformation, which is thought to occur due to a process of transdifferentiation whereby the lymphoma cells exhibit lineage plasticity and lose all evidence of B-cell phenotype and instead acquire the phenotype of a histiocytic neoplasm. Little is known about the underlying genetic alterations that occur during this unusual process. Comparative genetic analysis of pre- and post-transformation/transdifferentiation would be one tool by which we could better understand how this phenomenon occurs. Case presentation: Here we report the clinical, immunophenotypic and genetic features of a rare case of secondary malignant histiocytosis, Langerhans cell-type (Langerhans cell sarcoma) arising from a previous low grade follicular lymphoma. FISH analysis confirmed the presence of IgH/BCL2 rearrangement in both the low grade follicular lymphoma (FL) and transformed Langerhans cells sarcoma (LCS) samples, demonstrating a clonal relationship. Comparative whole exome sequencing was then performed, which identified a KRAS p.G13D mutation in the LCS that was not present in the FL. Conclusions: This report highlights genetic alterations, in particular an acquired somatic KRAS mutation, that may occur during transdifferentiation, with additional significance of KRAS mutation as a possible therapeutic target in cases which otherwise would have limited treatment options.
- Follicular lymphoma
- Langerhans cell sarcoma
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pathology and Forensic Medicine