L-acetylcarnitine causes rapid antidepressant effects through the epigenetic induction of mGlu2 receptors

Carla Nasca*, Dionysios Xenos, Ylenia Barone, Alessandra Caruso, Sergio Scaccianoce, Francesco Matrisciano, Giuseppe Battaglia, Aleksander A. Mathé, Anna Pittaluga, Luana Lionetto, Maurizio Simmaco, Ferdinando Nicoletti

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

203 Scopus citations


Epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the pathophysiology of depressive disorders and are unique potential targets for therapeutic intervention. The acetylating agent L-acetylcarnitine (LAC), awelltolerated drug, behaves as an antidepressant by the epigenetic regulation of type 2 metabotropic glutamate (mGlu2) receptors. It caused a rapid and long-lasting antidepressant effect in Flinders Sensitive Line rats and in mice exposed to chronic unpredictable stress, which, respectively, model genetic and environmentally induced depression. In bothmodels, LAC increased levels of acetylated H3K27 bound to the Grm2 promoter and also increased acetylation of NF-κB-p65 subunit, thereby enhancing the transcription of Grm2 gene encoding for the mGlu2 receptor in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Importantly, LAC reduced the immobility time in the forced swim test and increased sucrose preference as early as 3 d of treatment, whereas 14 d of treatment were needed for the antidepressant effect of chlorimipramine. Moreover, there was no tolerance to the action of LAC, and the antidepressant effect was still seen 2 wk after drug withdrawal. Conversely, NF-κB inhibition prevented the increase in mGlu2 expression induced by LAC, whereas the use of a histone deacetylase inhibitor supported the epigenetic control of mGlu2 expression. Finally, LAC had no effect on mGlu2 knockout mice exposed to chronic unpredictable stress, and a single injection of the mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist LY341495 partially blocked LAC action. The rapid and long-lasting antidepressant action of LAC strongly suggests a unique approach to examine the epigenetic hypothesis of depressive disorders in humans, paving the way for more efficient antidepressants with faster onset of action.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4804-4809
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Issue number12
StatePublished - Mar 19 2013
Externally publishedYes


  • BDNF
  • Chromatin
  • Glutamatergic neurotransmission
  • Histone acetylation
  • MDD

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General


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