In seven female pigs, a laparoscopic nephrectomy was attempted. The procedure was successful in six: extraction of the intact kidney via a 4.5-cm incision (two animals) and complete mor cell at ion and evacuation of the kidney via a 1-cm incision (four animals). In one animal, the entrapment bag tore, and only 40% of the kidney could be extracted. The average procedure time was 2 hours 48 minutes. The combination of laparoscopy, an efficient tissue morcellator, and an effective means of entrapment of the dissected organ have made laparoscopic nephrectomy a realizable and reproducible technique.
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