Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy Is Associated with Lower 30-Day Morbidity Versus Laparoscopic Gastric Bypass: an Analysis of the American College of Surgeons NSQIP

Jean B. Guerrier, Zachary C. Dietch, Bruce D. Schirmer, Peter T. Hallowell*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose: Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) has rapidly gained popularity as a single-stage operation for the treatment of morbid obesity, as patients undergoing LSG have been shown to achieve similar weight loss and resolution of obesity-related comorbidities in comparison to those undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), the “gold standard” bariatric operation. Although LSG poses fewer technical challenges than RYGB, little is known about differences in short-term outcomes among patients undergoing LSG and RYGB. We hypothesized that LSG is associated with lower 30-day risk-adjusted serious morbidity. Methods: Preoperative characteristics and 30-day outcomes from the American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACSNSQIP) Participant Use Files (PUF) 2010–2014 were selected for all patients who underwent LSG or RYGB. Descriptive comparisons were performed using chi-square and Wilcoxon’s rank-sum tests as appropriate. The primary outcome was a risk-adjusted composite measure of 30-day serious morbidity and mortality. Results: We analyzed records for 47,982 (42.0%) and 66,380 (58.0%) patients undergoing LSG and RYGB, respectively. On univariate analysis, LSG patients had a lower rate of organ space infection (0.45% vs. 0.68%, p < 0.001), lower rate of bleeding requiring transfusions (1.00% vs. 1.60%, p < 0.001), lower rate of sepsis (0.34% vs. 0.49%, p < 0.001), and septic shock (0.12% vs. 0.22%, p < 0.001) and required fewer unplanned reoperations (1.34% vs. 2.56%, p < 0.001) than RYGB patients. Both groups had similar rates of deep venous thrombosis (0.33% vs. 0.28%, p = 0.15) and pulmonary embolism (0.17% vs. 0.21%, p = 0.15). Mortality was lower among LSG patients (0.09% vs. 0.14%, p = 0.01). On multivariate analysis, RYGB was associated with higher risk-adjusted 30-day serious morbidity than LSG (odds ratio 1.61; 95% CI 1.52–1.71, p < 0.001). Older age, female gender, higher BMI, and insulin-dependent diabetes were also associated with risk of serious morbidity (C-statistic = 0.60). Conclusion: Serious morbidity following bariatric surgery is uncommon; however, LSG may be associated with modest protection from adverse 30-day outcomes in comparison to RYGB. Our conclusion is limited by the difference in baseline risk factors of the populations studied.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3567-3572
Number of pages6
JournalObesity Surgery
Volume28
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1 2018
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Bariatric surgery
  • Laparoscopic gastric bypass
  • Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

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