Episodic memory is thought to involve functional interactions of large-scale brain networks that dynamically reconfigure depending on task demands. Although the hippocampus and closely related structures have been implicated, little is known regarding how large-scale and distributed networks support different memory formation demands. We investigated patterns of interactions among distributed networks while human individuals formed item-context memories for two stimulus categories. Subjects studied object-scene and object-location associations in different fMRI sessions. Stimulus-responsive brain regions were organized based on their fMRI interconnectivity into networks and modules using probabilistic module-detection algorithms to maximize measurement of individual differences in modular structure. Although there was a great deal of consistency in the modular structure between object-scene and object-location memory formation, there were also significant differences. Interactions among functional modules predicted later memory accuracy, explaining substantial portions of variability in memory formation success. Increased interactivity of modules associated with internal thought and anti-correlation of these modules with those related to stimulus-evoked processing robustly predicted object-scene memory, whereas decreased interactivity of stimulus-evoked processing modules predicted object-location memory. Assessment of individual differences in network organization therefore allowed identification of distinct patterns of functional interactions that robustly predicted memory formation. This highlights large-scale brain network interactions for memory formation and indicates that although networks are largely robust to task demands, reconfiguration nonetheless occurs to support distinct memory formation demands.
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