Conducting or semiconducting materials embedded in insulating polymeric substrates can be useful in biointerface applications; however, attainment of this composite configuration by direct chemical processes is challenging. Laser-assisted synthesis has evolved as a fast and inexpensive technique to prepare various materials, but its utility in the construction of biophysical tools or biomedical devices is less explored. Here, we use laser writing to convert portions of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) into nitrogen-doped cubic silicon carbide (3C-SiC). The dense 3C-SiC surface layer is connected to the PDMS matrix via a spongy graphite layer, facilitating electrochemical and photoelectrochemical activity. We demonstrate the fabrication of arbitrary two-dimensional (2D) SiC-based patterns in PDMS and freestanding 3D constructs. To establish the functionality of the laser-produced composite, we apply it as flexible electrodes for pacing isolated hearts and as photoelectrodes for local peroxide delivery to smooth muscle sheets.
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