Learning and transfer: A general role for analogical encoding

Dedre Gentner*, Jeffrey Loewenstein, Leigh Thompson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

537 Scopus citations


Teaching by examples and cases is widely used to promote learning, but it varies widely in its effectiveness. The authors test an adaptation to case-based learning that facilitates abstracting problem-solving schemas from examples and using them to solve further problems: analogical encoding, or learning by drawing a comparison across examples. In 3 studies, the authors examined schema abstraction and transfer among novices learning negotiation strategies. Experiment 1 showed a benefit for analogical learning relative to no case study. Experiment 2 showed a marked advantage for comparing two cases over studying the 2 cases separately. Experiment 3 showed that increasing the degree of comparison support increased the rate of transfer in a face-to-face dynamic negotiation exercise.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)393-408
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Educational Psychology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Jun 2003

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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