Least-squares model-based halftoning

Thrasyvoulos N. Pappas, David L. Neuhoff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

71 Scopus citations


A least-squares model-based (LSMB) approach to digital halftoning is proposed. It exploits both a printer model and a model for visual perception. It attempts to produce an optimal halftoned reproduction, by minimizing the squared error between the response of the cascade of the printer and visual models to the binary image and the response of the visual model to the original gray-scale image. It has been shown that the one-dimensional (1-D) least-squares problem, in which each row or column of the image is halftoned independently, can be implemented using the Viterbi algorithm to obtain the globally optimal solution. Unfortunately, the Viterbi algorithm cannot be used in two dimensions. In this paper, the two-dimensional (2-D) least-squares solution is obtained by iterative techniques, which are only guaranteed to produce a local optimum. Experiments show that LSMB halftoning produces better textures and higher spatial and gray-scale resolution than conventional techniques. We also show that the least-squares approach eliminates most of the problems associated with error diffusion. We investigate the performance of the LSMB algorithms over a range of viewing distances, or equivalently, printer resolutions. We also show that the LSMB approach gives us precise control of image sharpness.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1102-1116
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Image Processing
Issue number8
StatePublished - 1999

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Computer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design


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