A wide variety of conditions may involve the splenium of the corpus callosum on magnetic resonance imaging in children. A single cause may present with different patterns of splenial involvement, and multiple diseases may have similar imaging findings. Keeping this limitation in mind, the goal of this text is to assist in the diagnostic process of pediatric neurological diseases that are characterized by prominent involvement of the splenium of the corpus callosum on imaging. The various pathologies will be reviewed and categorized based on etiology, reversibility, and pattern of additional or associated findings. Transient splenial lesions in children are an uncommon radiologic finding of unknown etiology in a long list of conditions that may present with altered consciousness, and it usually carries a favorable prognosis. The discussion continues with the presentation of diseases inflicting irreversible damage on the splenium. Familiarity with the various causes implicated in splenial injury may assist in the formulation of differential diagnosis in the appropriate clinical setting using an easily recognizable imaging finding.
- corpus callosum
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Clinical Neurology