In negotiating the anti-Black oppression, Black mothers communicate lessons of resistance in their racial socialization messages to their Black adolescent boys. We investigate whether distinct strategies of resistance for survival, characterized by individual-focused immediate strategies of resistance, and resistance for liberation, strategies of resistance that disrupt systems of anti-Black oppression rooted in furthering collective Black empowerment, are employed in Black mothers' messages to their sons. In this manuscript, we use longitudinal data of Black mothers’ of adolescent boys interviews (N = 31) across three time points (6th–11th grade). Our findings indicate the presence of various strategies of resistance for survival and resistance for liberation within Black mothers’ preparation for bias socialization.
- Black mothers
- racial socialization
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cultural Studies
- Developmental and Educational Psychology
- Social Sciences (miscellaneous)
- Behavioral Neuroscience