Linking frames in negotiations: Gains, losses and conflict frame adoption

Maurice E. Schweitzer, Leslie A. Dechnrch

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

29 Scopus citations


Two distinct literatures have investigated the impact of negotiator frames. Both literatures demonstrate that negotiator frames significantly influence both bargaining behavior and negotiated outcomes. These two literatures, however, offer completely different conceptualizations of what negotiator frames actually are. In this article we classify these two conceptualizations as reference frames, the referent-dependent perception of outcomes, and conflict frames, a multi-dimensional orientation toward conflict. We report results from an experiment that links these two types of frames. We find that loss-framed negotiators adopt conflict frames that are more win-oriented and task-oriented than the conflict frames gain-framed negotiators adopt. Our results offer insight into the frame adoption process and have implications for dispute resolution and negotiation practice.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)100-113
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Journal of Conflict Management
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2001

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Communication
  • Strategy and Management
  • Management of Technology and Innovation


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