The immunosuppressive microenvironment is one of the major factors promoting the growth of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Infiltration of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) into the tumor microenvironment plays a significant role in the suppression of the anti-tumor immunity and portends a dismal prognosis for patients. Glioma-mediated secretion of chemo-attractant C-C motif ligand 2 and 22 (CCL2/22) has previously been shown by our group to promote Treg migration in vitro. In this study, we show that a local implantation of platelet-rich fibrin patch (PRF-P) into the brain of GL261 glioma-bearing mice prolonged the survival of affected animals by 42.85% (p = 0.0011). Analysis performed on brain tumor tissue harvested from PRF-P-treated mice revealed a specific decrease in intra-tumoral lymphocytes with a preferential depletion of immunosuppressive Tregs. Importantly, co-culture of GL261 or chemo-attractants (CCL2/22) with PRF-P abrogated Treg migration. Pharmacological blockade of the CCL2/22 interaction with their receptors potentiated the inhibitory effect of PRF-P on Tregs recruitment in culture. Moreover, our findings revealed the soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) as a major Treg inhibitory player produced by activated platelets entrapped within the fibrin matrix of the PRF-P. Blockade of sCD40L restored the migratory capacity of Tregs, emphasizing the role of PRF-P in preventing the Treg migration to glioma tissue. Our findings highlight autologous PRF-P as a personalized, Treg-selective suppression platform that can potentially supplement and enhance the efficacy of glioma therapies.
- Glioblastoma multiforme
- Immunosuppressive microenvironment
- Platelet-rich fibrin patch
- Regulatory T cells and glioma immune therapies
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience