Locomotion of monocytes on endothelium is a critical step during extravasation

Alan R. Schenkel*, Zahra Mamdouh, William A. Muller

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

310 Scopus citations


Monocytes, like all leukocytes, undergo a series of sequential steps during extravasation from blood into tissues: tethering, rolling, adhesion and diapedesis. We have discovered an essential step, which we call locomotion, in which the monocyte moves from a site of firm adhesion to the nearest junction to begin diapedesis. Blocking CD11a-CD18 and CD11b-CD18 on human monocytes or adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and ICAM-2 on endothelial cells prevented the monocytes from reaching junctions. The blocked monocytes spun in circles as if they were unable to direct their movement despite being able to adhere and polarize normally. This step fills a gap in the paradigm of extravasation as a multistep process.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)393-400
Number of pages8
JournalNature Immunology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology

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