Long-term effect of PROLI/NO on cellular proliferation and phenotype after arterial injury

Edward S M Bahnson, Ashley K. Vavra, Megan E. Flynn, Janet M. Vercammen, Qun Jiang, Amanda R. Schwartz, Melina R. Kibbe*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Scopus citations


Vascular interventions are associated with high failure rates from restenosis secondary to negative remodeling and neointimal hyperplasia. Periadventitial delivery of nitric oxide (NO) inhibits neointimal hyperplasia, preserving lumen patency. With the development of new localized delivery vehicles, NO-based therapies remain a promising therapeutic avenue for the prevention of restenosis. While the time course of events during neointimal development has been well established, a full characterization of the impact of NO donors on the cells that comprise the arterial wall has not been performed. Thus, the aim of our study was to perform a detailed assessment of proliferation, cellularity, inflammation, and phenotypic cellular modulation in injured arteries treated with the short-lived NO donor, PROLI/NO. PROLI/NO provided durable inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia for 6 months after arterial injury. PROLI/NO inhibited proliferation and cellularity in the media and intima at all of the time points studied. However, PROLI/NO caused an increase in adventitial proliferation at 2 weeks, resulting in increased cellularity at 2 and 8 weeks compared to injury alone. PROLI/NO promoted local protein S-nitrosation and increased local tyrosine nitration, without measurable systemic effects. PROLI/NO predominantly inhibited contractile smooth muscle cells in the intima and media, and had little to no effect on vascular smooth muscle cells or myofibroblasts in the adventitia. Finally, PROLI/NO caused a delayed and decreased leukocyte infiltration response after injury. Our results show that a short-lived NO donor exerts durable effects on proliferation, phenotype modulation, and inflammation that result in long-term inhibition of neointimal hyperplasia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)272-286
Number of pages15
JournalFree Radical Biology and Medicine
StatePublished - Jan 2016


  • Inflammation
  • Neointimal hyperplasia
  • Nitric oxide
  • Proliferation
  • Reactive nitrogen species
  • S-nitrosation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Physiology (medical)


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