Background: A previous study by our group showed increased adhesions and granulation tissue in ethmoid cavities packed with FloSeal (FS) compared with those packed with thrombin-soaked gelatin foam after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). That study included 20 patients whose cavities were graded 6-8 weeks postoperatively. The goal of this study was to report long-term follow-up on this cohort. Methods: At least 1 year follow-up was available in 18/20 patients. The number of office procedures required to lyse adhesions during the follow-up period was tabulated also. Pathology was available from one patient who underwent lysis of adhesions on an FS side. The histopathological findings are presented. Results: The mean follow-up period was 21.4 (± 2.3) months, and none of the 18 patients required revision ESS during this interval. The overall incidence of adhesions (p = 0.013) and the number requiring lysis of adhesions (p = 0.046) were both greater in the FS group. During the interval between previous study evaluation (6-8 weeks postop) and last follow-up, five FS sides required a total of seven procedures to lyse adhesions. Silent adhesions were observed in an additional five FS sides. Although asymptomatic adhesions were observed in two thrombin-soaked gelatin sides at last examination, none underwent lysis. Biopsy of an adhesion from a patient packed with FS 25 months earlier revealed incorporated foreign material. Conclusion: FS appears to be associated with scar tissue formation and may be incorporated into recovering mucosa. Use of FS may increase the degree of postoperative care required after EES.
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