Long-term health-related quality of life, growth, and spiritual well-being after hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation

Michael A. Andrykowski*, Michelle M. Bishop, Elizabeth A. Hahn, David F. Cella, Jennifer L. Beaumont, Marianne J. Brady, Mary M. Horowitz, Kathleen A. Sobocinski, J. Douglas Rizzo, John R. Wingard

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

262 Scopus citations


Purpose: To examine health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and growth, and spiritual well-being in adult survivors of hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) for a malignant disease. Methods: HSCT survivors (n = 662) were recruited through the International Bone Marrow Transplant Registry/Autologous Blood and Marrow Transplant Registry and were drawn from 40 transplantation centers. HSCT survivors completed a telephone interview and a set of questionnaires a mean of 7.0 years post-HSCT (range, 1.8 to 22.6 years). Study measures included a variety of standardized measures of HRQOL and growth and spiritual well-being. An age- and sex-matched healthy comparison (HC) group (n = 158) was recruited using a peer nomination method. The HC group completed a parallel telephone interview and set of questionnaires. Results: Multivariate analysis of variance analyses found the HSCT survivor group reported poorer status relative to the HC group for all HRQOL outcome clusters including physical health, physical functioning, social functioning, psychological adjustment, and dyadic adjustment. In contrast, the HSCT survivor group reported more psychological and interpersonal growth. Mean effect size for the 24 outcome indices examined was 0.36 standard deviations, an effect size often considered clinically meaningful or important. The largest group differences were found for measures of general health, physical function and well-being, depression, cognitive function, and fatigue. Conclusion: The experience of HSCT for a malignant disease has a wide-ranging, longstanding, and profound impact on adult recipients. Relative to healthy controls, HSCT survivors reported poorer physical, psychological, and social functioning but, conversely, more psychological and interpersonal growth, differences that appeared to persist many years after HSCT.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)599-608
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Clinical Oncology
Issue number3
StatePublished - 2005

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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