Long-term outcome of adult acute leukemia patients who are alive and well two years after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from an HLA-identical sibling

Seema Singhal*, Ray Powles, Jennifer Treleaven, Samar Kulkarni, Clive Horton, Jayesh Mehta

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations

Abstract

We studied the long-term outcome of 136 adults with acute leukemia (age 15-48 years at transplant, median 28; 112 myeloid, 22 lymphoblastic, 2 undifferentiated) who were alive in continuous remission two years after allografting from HLA-identical sibling donors. Six relapsed 25-46 months (median 30) after BMT. Fourteen (10%) died of non-relapse causes (12 transplant-related and 2 unrelated) 24-140 months (median 73) after BMT mainly due to complications of chronic GVHD (8 infections, 3 secondary malignancies). One hundred and seventeen (86%) patients are alive in remission 25-226 months (median 103) after BMT; 116 (85%) in continuous remission. Eight survivors have symptomatic chronic GVHD requring therapy (Karnofsky scores 60-90%, median 80%). The majority of those without chronic GVHD have Karnofsky scores of 100%. The 10-year probabilities of survival, toxic death, and relapse (from the 2-year mark) are 81%, 13%, and 5%. Twenty-two (19%) survivors had creatinine levels of > 110 μmol/L (one more than double), and 11 (9%) had bilirubin levels of > 17 mmol/L (one more than double) at the last follow-up. The absence of chronic GVHD at the 2-year mark (RR 3.5, P = .004), and female sex (RR 2.9, P = .04) influenced overall survival favorably, and the absence of chronic GVHD at the 2-year mark (RR 8.1, P = .001) influenced toxic death favorably. We conclude that patients with acute leukemia who are alive and well without chronic GVHD two years following an allograft have a high probability of being cured, whereas patients with active chronic GVHD requiring immunosuppression continue to be at risk of non-relapse death. The incidence of long-term liver and kidney dysfunction measured by serum bilirubin and creatinine is low.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)287-294
Number of pages8
JournalLeukemia and Lymphoma
Volume34
Issue number3-4
DOIs
StatePublished - 1999

Keywords

  • Acute lymphoblastic leukemia
  • Acute myeloid leukemia
  • Bone marrow transplantation
  • Graft-versus-host disease
  • Long-term follow-up
  • Relapse
  • Secondary malignancies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hematology
  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research

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