Longitudinal Reoperation Risk After Apical Prolapse Procedures in Women Aged 65 Years and Older

Alexander A. Berger*, Carol E. Bretschneider, W. Thomas Gregory, Vivian Sung

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


OBJECTIVE: To describe longitudinal reoperation risk among older women undergoing surgery for apical pelvic organ prolapse (POP) and to compare risk of reoperation for prolapse and complications among different surgical approaches. METHODS: This nationwide, retrospective cohort study evaluated older adult women (aged 65 years and older) within the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services’ (CMS) 5% LDS (Limited Data Set) who underwent sacrocolpopexy, uterosacral ligament suspension (USLS), sacrospinous ligament fixation (SSLF), or colpocleisis, or their uterine-preserving equivalents, from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2018, with follow-up through 2019. The primary outcome was overall reoperation, and secondary outcomes included reoperation for POP and for complications. Rates were compared using x2 tests for categorical variables, Wilcoxon rank-sum for continuous variables and Kaplan Meier estimates of cumulative incidence. Death and exit from CMS insurance were considered as censoring events. We used cumulative incidence to calculate reoperation risk as a function of time at 1 year or more, 3 years or more, and 7 years or more. RESULTS: This cohort included 4,089 women who underwent surgery to treat apical POP from 2011 to 2018: 1,034 underwent sacrocolpopexy, 717 underwent USLS, 1,529 underwent SSLF, and 809 underwent colpocleisis. Demographics varied among patients for each POP surgery. Patients who underwent the different surgeries had differences in age (P,.01), Charlson Comorbidity Index score (P,.01), diabetes (P,.01), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P,.01), hypertension (P,.01), chronic pain (P5.01), congestive heart failure (P,.01), and concomitant hysterectomy (P,.01). Reoperation rates were low and increased over time. The overall reoperation risk through 7 years was 7.3% for colpocleisis, 10.4% for USLS, 12.5% for sacrocolpopexy, and 15.0% for SSLF (P,.01). Reoperation for recurrent POP through 7 years was 2.9% for colpocleisis, 7.3% for sacrocolpopexy, 7.7% for USLS, and 9.9% for SSLF (P,.01). Reoperation for complications through 7 years was 5.3% for colpocleisis, 8.2% for sacrocolpopexy, 6.4% for USLS, and 8.2% for SSLF (P,.01). CONCLUSION: The type of surgical repair is significantly associated with long-term risk of reoperation. Colpocleisis offers the least likelihood of reoperation for prolapse, followed by sacrocolpopexy; colpocleisis followed by USLS has the least risk of long-term reoperation for complication.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)411-418
Number of pages8
JournalObstetrics and gynecology
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 1 2024
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Obstetrics and Gynecology


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