Looking Ahead: Advancing Measurement and Analysis of the Block Design Test Using Technology and Artificial Intelligence

Kiley McKee*, Danielle Rothschild, Stephanie Ruth Young, David H. Uttal

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The block design test (BDT) has been used for over a century in research and clinical contexts as a measure of spatial cognition, both as a singular ability and as part of more comprehensive intelligence assessment. Traditionally, the BDT has been scored using methods that do not reflect the full potential of individual differences that could be measured by the test. Recent advancements in technology, including eye-tracking, embedded sensor systems, and artificial intelligence, have provided new opportunities to measure and analyze data from the BDT. In this methodological review, we outline the information that BDT can assess, review several recent advancements in measurement and analytic methods, discuss potential future uses of these methods, and advocate for further research using these methods.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number53
JournalJournal of Intelligence
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 2024


  • artificial intelligence
  • assessment
  • block design test
  • measurement
  • technology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Cognitive Neuroscience

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